On this page we will discuss drill from W.J. Hardee's manual, and the roles that the soldier played.
General William James Hardee, CSA
William J. Hardee, despite his outstanding military career, would most likely be a footnote in American history, were it not for his masterpiece of drill, Rifle and Infantry Tactics.
Hardee was born in Georgia, in 1815,and received an appointment to West Point, graduating 26th in his class, in 1838 He served with gallantry in the war with Mexico, receiving two brevet promotions for his service.
In 1853, at the urging of Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis, Hardee, then a Major, with the brevet rank of Lt. Colonel, began work on a new, updated manual, specifically designed to utilize the advantages of the improved rifles available. In 1855, Hardee's Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics became the standard instructional manual for the U.S. Army.
Hardee's work assumed that troops would be armed with the model 1841 "Mississippi" rifle, a two band weapon that had achieved popularity during the war with Mexico. He revised his work for the popular three band rifled percussion musket, which became the standard shoulder arm of the American Civil War. This revision was published in Mobile in 1861, and again in an edition for North Carolina Troops, in 1862. This version has been reprinted, and is now usually referred to as the "1862 Hardee's", or the "Confederate Hardee's".
The rank of a Civil War soldier indicated his duties and responsibilities within the army. The vast majority of soldiers were enlisted men—they made up the bulk of the fighting force. Above them were non-commissioned officers (also considered enlisted soldiers) and commissioned officers. While officers had more prestige than privates, they also carried added burdens, since they were accountable for all the soldiers under their command.
Rank Structure in the SICWA
Major, Captain, Lieutenant
None Commissioned Officers (NCO's) :
First Sergeant, Sergeant, Ordinance Sergeant, Corporal